Range: Europe, Asia and Africa
T. t. totanus - Western Europe. British
breeds were formerly separated as T. t. britannicus but are now included
within the nominate subspecies.
T. t. robusta - Breed in Iceland and Faroes and winter mainly in the British Isles. Larger and more heavily spotted than the nominate totanus found elsewhere in Europe.
T. t. ussuriensis - Breeds east of the Urals and winters in the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East. Richer cinnamon tone to the plumage compared to totanus or robusta.